The Australia-China Commission proposed in this paper would be an independent bi-national organisation devoted to supporting exchange programs between Australia and China across the continuum of government, education, and industry. This initiative would address the growing shortfall of leadership and sophisticated exchange in the bilateral relationship. Ultimately, the Australia-China Commission would help maximize the opportunities and mitigate the problems and risks associated with the system differences between the two economies and societies. In this paper we discuss the proposal for the establishment of an Australia-China Commission ('the Commission'), recommended in the Australia-China Joint Economic Report (Drysdale & Zhang 2016). This paper follows on from ’The Australia-China Commission: A Preliminary Proposal’ (Drysdale & Zhang 2017), and is designed to serve as a resource for both governments to assess the feasibility of the idea. Accordingly, the paper will identify the context, opportunities, challenges, precedents, and comparisons that might be associated with the Commission, as well as begin to outline a working model for its constitution, governance, and eventual implementation.